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I get an error like "what(): locale::facet::_S_create_c_locale name not valid". What do I do?

Answer

Example Error:
terminate called after throwing an instance of 'std::runtime_error'
what(): locale::facet::_S_create_c_locale name not valid

On some minimal installs of Debian or other distributions, the locales are not completely installed / built.
This error can be corrected as follow (run as root):

Debian:
Code:
$ apt-get install locales && dpkg-reconfigure locales
Ubuntu:
Code:
$ apt-get install locales
$ locale-gen en_US.UTF-8
$ update-locale LANG=en_US.UTF-8
$ reboot